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Volume 9, issue 1 | Copyright

Special issue: The Earth system at a global warming of 1.5°C and 2.0°C

Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 197-210, 2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research article 05 Mar 2018

Research article | 05 Mar 2018

Irreversible ocean thermal expansion under carbon dioxide removal

Dana Ehlert and Kirsten Zickfeld
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Related subject area
Earth system change: climate prediction
A mathematical approach to understanding emergent constraints
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Assessing the impact of a future volcanic eruption on decadal predictions
Sebastian Illing, Christopher Kadow, Holger Pohlmann, and Claudia Timmreck
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Projections of East Asian summer monsoon change at global warming of 1.5 and 2 °C
Jiawei Liu, Haiming Xu, and Jiechun Deng
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Changes in extremely hot days under stabilized 1.5 and 2.0 °C global warming scenarios as simulated by the HAPPI multi-model ensemble
Michael Wehner, Dáithí Stone, Dann Mitchell, Hideo Shiogama, Erich Fischer, Lise S. Graff, Viatcheslav V. Kharin, Ludwig Lierhammer, Benjamin Sanderson, and Harinarayan Krishnan
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Cited articles
Armour, K. C., Marshall, J., Scott, J. R., Donohoe, A., and Newsom, E. R.: Southern Ocean warming delayed by circumpolar upwelling and equatorward transport, Nat. Geosci., 9, 549–554, 2016.
Boucher, O., Halloran, P. R., Burke, E. J., Doutriaux-Boucher, M., Jones, C. D., Lowe, J., Ringer, M. A., Robertson, E., and Wu, P.: Reversibility in an Earth System model in response to CO2 concentration changes, Environ. Res. Lett., 7, 024013,, 2012.
Bouttes, N., Gregory, J. M., and Lowe, J. A.: The Reversibility of Sea Level Rise, J. Climate, 26, 2502–2513,, 2013.
Bouttes, N., Good, P., Gregory, J. M., and Lowe, J. A.: Nonlinearity of ocean heat uptake during warming and cooling in the FAMOUS climate model, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 2409–2416,, 2015.
Bryan, K. and Lewis, L.: A water mass model of the world ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 84, 2503–2517, 1979.
Publications Copernicus
Special issue
Short summary
This study uses a global climate model to explore the extent to which sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the ocean is reversible if the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) declines. It is found that sea level continues to rise for several decades after atmospheric CO2 starts to decline and does not return to the pre-industrial level for over thousand years after atmospheric CO2 is restored to the pre-industrial concentration.
This study uses a global climate model to explore the extent to which sea level rise due to...