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Earth System Dynamics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union

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Earth Syst. Dynam., 7, 717-734, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-7-717-2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
30 Aug 2016
Coherence among the Northern Hemisphere land, cryosphere, and ocean responses to natural variability and anthropogenic forcing during the satellite era
Alemu Gonsamo et al.

Data sets

The Northern Hemisphere GISS surface temperature NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp The HadCRUT4 hybrid temperature Hadley Centre (UK Met Office) and Climatic Research Unit (University of East Anglia) https://crudata.uea.ac.uk/cru/data/temperature The first flower bloom day of Canada NatureWatch Canada https://www.naturewatch.ca/plantwatch The snow cover data Rutgers university- global snow lab http://climate.rutgers.edu/snowcover The sea level data Sea Level Research Group-University of Colorado http://sealevel.colorado.edu The Point Barrow atmospheric CO2 concentration data National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration|Earth System Research Laboratory|Global Monitoring Division http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/dv/data The solar irradiance data (version d41_62_1302) The Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD) ftp://ftp.pmodwrc.ch/pub/data/irradiance The cosmic ray neutron monitor data Germany Coamic Ray Monitor ftp://ftp.ngdc.noaa.gov/STP/SOLAR_DATA/COSMIC_RAYS/STATION_DATA/Kiel The Northern Hemisphere teleconnection indices National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration|Center for Weather and Climate Prediction|Climate Prediction Center http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/data/teledoc/telecontents.shtml ENSO-Niño 3.4 index (NINO) data National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration|Center for Weather and Climate Prediction|Climate Prediction Center http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/analysis_monitoring/ensostuff/detrend.nino34.ascii.txt Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation data National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration|Earth System Research Laboratory|Physical Sciences Division http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/timeseries/AMO The Stratospheric Aerosol Optical Thickness NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) http://data.giss.nasa.gov/modelforce/strataer The radiative forcing of the 20 well-mixed greenhouse gases National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration|Earth System Research Laboratory|Global Monitoring Division http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aggi The Northern Hemisphere sea ice exten National Snow and Ice Data Center ftp://sidads.colorado.edu/DATASETS/NOAA/G02135/ The Northern Hemisphere sea ice concentration National Snow and Ice Data Center ftp://sidads.colorado.edu/pub/DATASETS/nsidc0051_gsfc_nasateam_seaice/final-gsfc/ Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI3g) data Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies https://ecocast.arc.nasa.gov/data/pub/gimms/3g.v0/
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Short summary
Using 3 decades of observational satellite and field data, we find that long-term changes in sea ice and sea level, plant phenology, and surface temperature are coherent with increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration and other global greenhouse gases. During the same period, natural causes of climate change should only have a net cooling long-term effect, suggesting the observed coherent pattern of changes across Earth's biological and physical systems could only be due to human activities.
Using 3 decades of observational satellite and field data, we find that long-term changes in sea...
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