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Earth System Dynamics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union

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Earth Syst. Dynam., 7, 717-734, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-7-717-2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
30 Aug 2016
Coherence among the Northern Hemisphere land, cryosphere, and ocean responses to natural variability and anthropogenic forcing during the satellite era
Alemu Gonsamo et al.

Data sets

The Northern Hemisphere GISS surface temperature
NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS)
http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp
The HadCRUT4 hybrid temperature
Hadley Centre (UK Met Office) and Climatic Research Unit (University of East Anglia)
https://crudata.uea.ac.uk/cru/data/temperature
The first flower bloom day of Canada
NatureWatch Canada
https://www.naturewatch.ca/plantwatch
The snow cover data
Rutgers university- global snow lab
http://climate.rutgers.edu/snowcover
The sea level data
Sea Level Research Group-University of Colorado
http://sealevel.colorado.edu
The Point Barrow atmospheric CO2 concentration data
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration|Earth System Research Laboratory|Global Monitoring Division
http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/dv/data
The solar irradiance data (version d41_62_1302)
The Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD)
ftp://ftp.pmodwrc.ch/pub/data/irradiance
The cosmic ray neutron monitor data
Germany Coamic Ray Monitor
ftp://ftp.ngdc.noaa.gov/STP/SOLAR_DATA/COSMIC_RAYS/STATION_DATA/Kiel
The Northern Hemisphere teleconnection indices
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration|Center for Weather and Climate Prediction|Climate Prediction Center
http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/data/teledoc/telecontents.shtml
ENSO-Niño 3.4 index (NINO) data
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration|Center for Weather and Climate Prediction|Climate Prediction Center
http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/analysis_monitoring/ensostuff/detrend.nino34.ascii.txt
Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation data
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration|Earth System Research Laboratory|Physical Sciences Division
http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/timeseries/AMO
The Stratospheric Aerosol Optical Thickness
NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS)
http://data.giss.nasa.gov/modelforce/strataer
The radiative forcing of the 20 well-mixed greenhouse gases
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration|Earth System Research Laboratory|Global Monitoring Division
http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aggi
The Northern Hemisphere sea ice exten
National Snow and Ice Data Center
ftp://sidads.colorado.edu/DATASETS/NOAA/G02135/
The Northern Hemisphere sea ice concentration
National Snow and Ice Data Center
ftp://sidads.colorado.edu/pub/DATASETS/nsidc0051_gsfc_nasateam_seaice/final-gsfc/
Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI3g) data
Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies
https://ecocast.arc.nasa.gov/data/pub/gimms/3g.v0/
Publications Copernicus
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Short summary
Using 3 decades of observational satellite and field data, we find that long-term changes in sea ice and sea level, plant phenology, and surface temperature are coherent with increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration and other global greenhouse gases. During the same period, natural causes of climate change should only have a net cooling long-term effect, suggesting the observed coherent pattern of changes across Earth's biological and physical systems could only be due to human activities.
Using 3 decades of observational satellite and field data, we find that long-term changes in sea...
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